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NAMEkill - send signal to a process
DESCRIPTIONThe kill system call can be used to send any signal to any process group or process.
If fIpidfP is positive, then signal fIsigfP is sent to fIpidfP.
If fIpidfP equals 0, then fIsigfP is sent to every process in the process group of the current process.
If fIpidfP equals -1, then fIsigfP is sent to every process except for process 1 (init), but see below.
If fIpidfP is less than -1, then fIsigfP is sent to every process in the process group fI-pidfP.
RETURN VALUEOn success, zero is returned. On error, -1 is returned, and errno is set appropriately.
NOTESIt is impossible to send a signal to task number one, the init process, for which it has not installed a signal handler. This is done to assure the system is not brought down accidentally.
POSIX 1003.1-2001 requires that fIkill(-1,sig)fP send fIsigfP to all processes that the current process may send signals to, except possibly for some implementation-defined system processes. Linux allows a process to signal itself, but on Linux the call fIkill(-1,sig)fP does not signal the current process.
LINUX HISTORYAcross different kernel versions, Linux has enforced different rules for the permissions required for an unprivileged process to send a signal to another process. In kernels 1.0 to 1.2.2, a signal could be sent if the effective user ID of the sender matched that of the receiver, or the real user ID of the sender matched that of the receiver. From kernel 1.2.3 until 1.3.77, a signal could be sent if the effective user ID of the sender matched either the real or effective user ID of the receiver. The current rules, which conform to POSIX 1003.1-2001, were adopted in kernel 1.3.78.
CONFORMING TOSVr4, SVID, POSIX.1, X/OPEN, BSD 4.3, POSIX 1003.1-2001
SEE ALSO_exit(2), killpg(2), signal(2), tkill(2), exit(3), signal(7)